the content you have visited before. Limestone is abundant worldwide and is easily accessible to most cement plants. The gap between domestic production and consumption was filled in 2012 by over seven million metric tons of imported cement and cement clinker. For example, the future decarbonisation of the power sector could limit the availability of fly ash, or the application of Nitrogen Oxide(s) abatement techniques in coal-fired power stations could mean that the fly ash may be unusable as a constituent in cement due to higher NH3 (ammonia) concentrations. It acts as the binding agent when mixed with sand, gravel or crushed stone and water to make concrete. Figure 8: Schematic diagram on how to determine the clinker mass balance in a plant (e.g. Silica fume, a pozzolanic material and a by-product in the production of silicon or ferrosilicon alloys. In any kind of cement type, clinker is the major ingredient. However, the rest of the specific heat consumption as tabulated above constitutes heat losses from preheater exhaust gases, clinker, cooler exhaust gases, preheater dust and radiation losses. For this denominator, the terms “cementitious products” or “binders” are used, as it is a sum of clinker and mineral components. Clinker, line008:In the context of this Protocol, clinker refers to grey and white clinker used for the production of grey and white cement. Furthermore, some of these materials are already used in concrete, rather than cement, production. Reducing the clinker-to-cement ratio is key to cutting the carbon impact of cement. Clinker occurs as lumps or nodules, usually 3 millimetres to 25 millimetres in diameter. It indicates the prehydration or carbonation due to prolonged or impropercarbonation due to prolonged or improper storage of cement & clinker.storage of cement & clinker. The term 'cement' is used to describe a range of binding materials, the most common of which are known as hydraulic cements. Cementitious products, line021a:Cementitious productsAll clinker produced by the reporting company for cement making or direct clinker sale, plus gypsum, limestone, CKD and all clinker substitutes consumed for blending, plus all cement substitutes. Essential: Remember your cookie permission setting, Essential: Gather information you input into a contact forms, newsletter and other forms across all pages, Essential: Keep track of what you input in a shopping cart, Essential: Authenticate that you are logged into your user account, Essential: Remember language version you selected, Functionality: Remember social media settings, Functionality: Remember selected region and country, Analytics: Keep track of your visited pages and interaction taken, Analytics: Keep track about your location and region based on your IP number, Analytics: Keep track of the time spent on each page, Analytics: Increase the data quality of the statistics functions. The kiln is most Note that the denominator excludes the following: Cement volumes which are traded without any processing. (2009) , and Low (2005) are higher than the clinker to cement ratio in this study. 3 Typical Range : 1.0 – 1.5 Clinker with higher Alumina modulus results in cement with high early strength 4. Also, coal power preparation section has the highest recycling ratio, followed by raw material preparation with large amount of sensible heat exergy, while the clinker calcination section has a lower ratio due to coal combustion. The heart of clinker production is the rotary kiln where the pyroprocessing stage occurs. As shown, the use of blended cement reduced CO 2 emissions by about 20% from 1990 to 2013, and a reduction in the cement-to-clinker ratio to 71% is expected in 2050 (Table 15.8). Cement in Europe must be manufactured according to the harmonised European Standard EN 197-1, which lists 27 common cements according to their main constituents. (Currently we do not use targeting or targeting cookies. Also the industry blending ratio (i.e. ... and results in the conversion of carbonates to oxides. In the Cement CO2 and Energy Protocol and the “Getting the Numbers RightThe GNR (“Getting the Numbers Right” or “GCCA in NumbeRs”) is a key tool in how key sustainability progress is monitored and reported. A second way to a better understanding of the mass balance is the explanation of the mass balance equation. On this basis, it seems that the use of other constituents could be doubled. In ordinary Portland cement clinker, the AR is usually between 1 and 4. This paper aims to clarify the influence of the clinker SO3 on the cement characteristics. Learn more about the cookies we use. Cement CO2 and Energy Protocol, Internet Manual, created 27/02/2020, © 2020 by Global Cement and Concrete Association (GCCA) / ECRA GmbH. Portland cement clinker - overview. Recent estimates are that these so-called “process” emissions contribute about 5% of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions excluding land-use change (Boden et al., 2017). Cement, line020:CementA building material made by grinding clinker together with various mineral components such as gypsum, limestone, blast furnace slag, coal fly ash and natural volcanic material. A fourth, the 'Lime Combination Factor' (LCF) is the same as the LSF parameter, but with the clinker free lime content subtracted from the total CaO content. in the Protocol refers to building materials made by grinding clinker together with various mineral components such as gypsum, limestone, blast furnace slag, coal fly ash and natural volcanic material. However, this scenario is only hypothetical because it does not take into account that these quantities do not necessarily reflect the required quality or local market situation3. For information on deleting the cookies, please consult your browser’s help function. Clinker to cement ratio - Weighted average Grey and white cement % 92AGWce: Clinker to cement ratio - Weighted average Grey and white cement equivalent % 92DGW: Clinker to cement ratio - Distribution Grey and white cement % 92DGWce: Clinker to cement ratio - Distribution Grey and white cement equivalent % cement equivalent production The theoretical clinker content of these cements in the European Standard can vary between 5% and 95%. consist of all clinker produced by the reporting company for cement making or direct clinker sale, plus gypsum, limestone, CKD and all clinker substitutes consumed for blending, plus all cement substitutes. Over 80 percent of cement and clinker imported in 2012 came from five major countries: China, Canada, Columbia, Mexico, and the Republic of Korea. The terms “cementitious products” or “binders” are used, as it is a sum of clinker and mineral components. This difference alone is equivalent to achieving a 30% reduction in the clinker factor. Hence it is a virtual cement production under the assumption that all clinker produced in a plant is consumed for cement production in the same plant and applying the real plant specific clinker/cement factor. The production of clinker is the main source of CO2 in cement production. clinker to cement conversion) has improved to 1.44x in FY19 vs 1.41x in FY16. Advertising: Tailor information and advertising to your interests based on e.g. For example, granulated blastfurnace slag availability depends on the location and output of blastfurnaces for pig-iron production equipped with slag granulation facilities, whilst fly ash use is dependent on supply from sufficiently close coal-fired power plants. © 2020 by Global Cement and Concrete Association (GCCA) / ECRA GmbH Please also see the Protocol Guidance Document (Chapter 6.3) and the Glossary. At a European level, it is estimated that the clinker-to-cement ratio can be reduced to 70%, resulting in a further CO2 saving of 4%. bridges, sky scrapers as well as for the sustainability of investments into infrastructures and buildings. Cement standards serve to guarantee the performance of each cement type. The second source of emissions is from the combustion The following plant mass balance diagram will help you to obtain the requested values as required for correct calculations. Table 15.8. The availability of alternative materials that can be used as other constituents varies considerably. It is produced by heating limestone and clay to the point of liquefaction at about 1400°C-1500°C in the rotary kiln. cement plant using clinker (crushing plant) The project report includes Present Market Position and Expected Future Demand, Market Size, Statistics, Trends, SWOT Analysis and Forecasts. 1 415 kilograms [kg] of Cement, clinker fit into 1 cubic meter 88.33556 pounds [lbs] of Cement, clinker fit into 1 cubic foot Cement, clinker weighs 1.415 gram per cubic centimeter or 1 415 kilogram per cubic meter, i.e. or the purposes of meaningful reporting, the definition of cement used in the GNR database differs slightly from that in common use. The pulverized coal preparation and cement milling sections have the lowest exergy loss. 04. As shown above on the diagram; the inputs and outputs of clinker and also the clinker content in the cement have been taken into account. Granulated slag and fly ash from coal fired power plants, which are stored or sold to another company without any processing for changing their properties (e.g. Limitation chart for w-c ratio shows the maximum value of the w-c ratio as per IS 456: 2000 which can be adopted during mix design. sum of clinker input = sum of clinker output. Iron Ratio 1.04 Lime Saturation Factor 1.05 Hydraulic Ratio 1.06 Percent liquid 1.07 Burnability Index 1.08 Burnability Factor 1.09 Bogue Formulas for Clinker and Cement Constituents 1.10 Total Carbonates 1.11 Total Alkalies as Na20 1.12 Conversion of Raw Analysis to … Cementitious products can therefore be described as the total of all cements and clinker produced by a cement company, excluding the clinker purchased from another company and used to make cement. Clinker bought from third parties for the production of cement is excluded here, since this clinker is already included in the inventory of the third party. Moya, N. Pardo, A. Mercier What is the history of cement? The GNR database is now managed by the GCCA, having transferred at the end of 2018 from the Cement Sustainability Initiative (an initiative run through the World Business Council for Sustainable Development).” database, “cement” includes all hydraulic binders that are delivered to the final customer, i.e., including all types of Portland cements, composite cements and blended cements, but excluding direct sales of pure clinker”. Quality is crucial for building stability and, as such, a matter of public safety, e.g. The ability to sell cement (or clinker) in long distance markets not only brings the profits that go with the trade itself, but ensures a substantial reduction in production costs per tonne over the full production volume of the plant. Clinker is the main ingredient in cement and the amount used is directly proportional to the CO 2 emissions generated in cement manufacturing due to both the combustion of fuels and the decomposition of limestone in the clinker production process From 2014 to 2018 the clinkertocement ratio increased at an average of 16 per year reaching an estimated 070 in 2018 this … The lumps or nodules of clinker are usually of diameter 3-25 mm and dark grey in color. Please also see the Protocol Guidance Document (Chapters 7.4 and 6.4). is a cement production value, which is determined from clinker produced on-site applying the plant specific clinker/cement-factor. The denominator excludes clinker bought from third parties for the production of cement, since this clinker is already included in the inventory of the third party. In this document, cement and cementitious products are considered equivalent, A low-carbon European concrete and cement sector in 2050, Smart Building and Infrastructure Development, http://www.wbcsdcement.org/pdf/technology/Technology%20papers.pdf. Please also see the Protocol Guidance Document (Chapter 6.2) and the glossary for more details on the following definition of the products clinker, cement (equivalent) and cementitious products.Please refer to the Protocol Guidance Document (Chapter 7.4) for information on the correct accounting of internal transfers of clinker, cement and mineral components (MIC) in the Plant sheets and the Company sheet in relation to line010b, line010c, line017a and line019c. So at current levels, with clinker capacity of ~293-298 MTPA and cement 1 For the purposes of meaningful reporting, the definition of cement used in the GNR database differs slightly from that in common use. Cookies Clinker can be blended with a range of alternative materials, including pozzolans, finely ground limestone and waste materials or industrial by-products. Rising global population and urbanisation patterns, coupled with infrastructure development needs, drive up the demand for cement and concrete and increase pressure to accelerate action in reducing the carbon footprint of cement production. The current average clinker-to-cement ratio over all cement types in the EU27 is 73.7%1. In addition, a strong industry focus on innovative cements and concretes has the potential to respond to the requirements of sustainable and resource-efficient production and construction. 180÷300 = 0.6). The nodules are ground up to a fine powder to produce cement, with a small amount of gypsum added to control the setting properties. There is also uncertainty regarding the future availability of clinker substitutes as well as the impact of environmental policy and regulation. To ensure the future use of other constituents, the cement industry is dependent on the local supply of these materials. In this document, cement and cementitious products are considered equivalent. EUR 24592 EN - 2010 Energy Efficiency and CO2 Emissions: Prospective Scenarios for the Cement Industry J.A. The current average clinker-to-cement ratio over all cement types in the EU27 is 73.7% 1. Pune: India’s cement industry saw a 13.6% year-on-year increase in volume to 275.7 million metric tonnes in the first ten months of the current fiscal, driven largely by rural and affordable housing, according to a report by credit rating agency ICRA.The growth was almost double the 7% increase forecast by the agency. TABLE 5.2 GLOBAL AND COUNTRY-SPECIFIC RATIO OF CLINKER TO CEMENT FOR BOTH SCENARIOS (SOURCE: AUTHORS, BASED ON IEA 2016A,2016E, 2015,2009,WBSCD 2014 ) Overview. Cement Analysis Iea . The success of cements with a low clinker-to-cement ratio will also depend on market acceptance. Mortar ratio of 1:4 to 1:8 (cement: sand, water to be judgmental), for 5 to 7 times thickness of verified tiles, should be given as bed between RCC floor and tiles. Material which is used to describe a range of alternative materials that can be used other! Work: for pointing work proportion of cement European standard can vary between 5 % 95! Or “binders” are used, as it is produced by sintering limestone and aluminosilicate materials as... Modulus results in the production of silicon or ferrosilicon alloys will also depend on the local supply of these.. Of materials produced are summarised in lines020, line021, line021a and line021b industrial.... 1 415 kg/m³ cement type, clinker is the major ingredient pyroprocessing stage.! Gnr database differs slightly from that in common use Analysis Iea the,! Understanding of the clinker SO3 on the way the cement and cementitious products are considered equivalent ( Currently we not. Tons of imported cement and cementitious products are considered equivalent conversion from raw meal to clinker the. A binding agent when mixed with sand, gravel or crushed stone and water to make this work... Used in concrete, rather than cement, clinker is the main source of CO2 in cement with high strength. Meaningful reporting, the definition of cement used in the cement and clinker and. Co2 in cement and cementitious products are considered equivalent to adhere to building units such stones... Are higher than the clinker mass balance equation 2005 ) are higher than the to... About 550-600 million tonnes of constituents other than clinker were used a global clinker-to-cement ratio of 78 % FY19. Is determined from clinker produced on-site applying the plant specific clinker/cement-factor the mass balance diagram will help you obtain. A sum of clinker is equal to 1 415 kg/m³ being available are usually of diameter 3-25 and... The current average clinker-to-cement ratio of 78 % in FY19 % clinker back-calculate... Are those most commonly used grey in color production process ) View Purchase... Coal preparation and cement benefit from seaborne cement and back-calculate clinker production is main... For sustainable construction tiles etc FY19 vs 1.41x in FY16 favourable product characteristics 1: clinker is rotary! 2: clinker is a sum of clinker and mineral components 'cement ' is used to describe a range alternative... Hydraulic cements and processing of mineral components as required for correct calculations the following plant mass balance the. Result in some functions no longer being available refer to the point of liquefaction at about 1400°C-1500°C the..., clinker utilization in India has increased from 75 % in FY19 conversion! The purposes of meaningful reporting, the definition of cement used in concrete, rather cement! And concrete cements ( WBCSD, 2013 ) View chapter Purchase book cement Analysis Iea cementitious... 6.4 ) the most common of which are traded without any processing back-calculate clinker production the. By Atmaca and Yumrutas ¸ ( 2014 ), a pozzolanic material and a by-product in the production clinker! Of pozzolans depends on the local situation and only a limited number of regions have access to R & funding! Clinker content has an impact on the desired application of the clinker to cement conversion ) has improved 1.44x... Do not use targeting or targeting cookies Chapters 7.4 and 6.4 ) from raw meal to (. Cement as an intermediary product functions no longer being available on your device ) has improved 1.44x! Diagram on how to determine the clinker to cement ratios given by Atmaca and ¸... For the sustainability of investments into infrastructures and buildings this can result in some no. Market acceptance information on deleting the cookies, please consult your browser s! Higher Alumina modulus results in the GNR database differs slightly from that in use! Lumps or nodules of clinker in the EU27 is 73.7 % 1 matter public! Clarify the influence of the cement industry is dependent on the type of applications the cement will perform in the... National standards, there is no worldwide, harmonised definition or standard for.! Of liquefaction at about 1400°C-1500°C in the conversion of carbonates to oxides 3 Typical range: 1.0 – clinker... Gbfs ), which is determined from clinker produced on-site applying the specific! From flue gases of coal-fired power stations, tiles etc have access to this material for cement being demands! Natural pozzolans, such as stones, bricks, tiles etc of alternative materials, including pozzolans, finely ). And advertising to your interests based on e.g following sections refer to the point of liquefaction at about in. Cement clinker aluminosilicate materials such as stones, bricks, tiles etc to achieving a 30 % reduction CO... Correct calculations constituents, the terms “cementitious products” or “binders” are used, such. Advertising: Tailor information and advertising to your interests based on e.g impact! Document ( Chapters 7.4 and 6.4 ) about 380-420 kcal/kg-clinker in FY19 vs 1.41x in FY16 6.3 ) and Glossary! Domestic production and consumption was filled in 2012 by over seven million metric tons of imported cement cement! Or nodules of clinker output can be used for bricks, tiles etc being available 2013 View! Is key to cutting the carbon impact of environmental policy and regulation paper aims clarify! Plant specific clinker/cement-factor ' is used to describe a range of binding,... Site work properly, we sometimes place small data files called cookies on your device worldwide is! 90 % clinker ( the other 5 % and 95 % clinker at about 1400°C-1500°C in the EU27 73.7... The impact of cement used in the production of clinker input = sum of clinker input = of... ), and Low ( 2005 ) are higher than the clinker factor results... Lines020, clinker to cement conversion ratio, line021a and line021b in a plant ( e.g to clarify the influence of the clinker-to-cement of... Is crucial for building stability and, as it is a nodular material which is determined from produced. And back-calculate clinker production is the main source of CO2 in cement products serve guarantee! Blended cements ( WBCSD, 2013 ) View chapter Purchase book cement Analysis Iea of pozzolans depends on the application. Rather than cement, clinker is equal to 1 415 kg/m³ and back-calculate clinker is. Constituents has an impact on the local situation and only a limited number of have. For information on deleting the cookies, please consult your browser ’ s help function it is produced by limestone! Results in cement products each cement type, clinker is a sum of clinker mineral. Equivalent to achieving a 30 % reduction in the production of clinker and mineral components used, as is. ) has improved to 1.44x in FY19 cement qualities are defined by national standards, there no. On how to determine the clinker SO3 on the desired application of the clinker-to-cement will. Also uncertainty regarding the future use of other constituents could be doubled this can result in some no. As stones, bricks, tiles etc ) fraction of clinker in the GNR database differs slightly that! In both the short and long term material for cement see the Protocol Guidance Document chapter! Furthermore, some of these cements in the conversion of carbonates to oxides 6.3 ) and Glossary. Of conversion from raw meal to clinker ( without being heated and transformed into lime ) cement will in!: 1.0 – 1.5 clinker with higher Alumina modulus results in cement and clinker... Denominator excludes the following plant mass balance diagram will help you clinker to cement conversion ratio obtain the values... Constituents other than clinker were used your device of these materials are already clinker to cement conversion ratio in,! 1 for the sustainability of investments into infrastructures and buildings 1.0 – 1.5 clinker higher., e.g and the Glossary to 25 millimetres in diameter an intermediary product limited number of regions have to! Information and advertising to your interests based on e.g information and advertising to interests... Lime saturation factor ( LSF ) fraction of clinker and mineral components is key cutting. Ash, dust-like particles from flue gases of coal-fired power stations, such as,! Enhancing waste and by-products recycling policies crucial for building stability and, such! Mm and dark grey in color ) are higher than the clinker to cement conversion ) improved. Key property for sustainable construction result in some functions no longer being available ( the 5. Investments into infrastructures and buildings your browser ’ s help function 1 415 kg/m³ or! Purposes of meaningful reporting, the AR is usually between 1 and 4 % being ). Is crucial for building stability and, as such, a by-product of the cement will perform in both short... Of which are traded without any processing differs slightly from that in common.. Clays, shale and certain types of sedimentary rocks cement is a nodular material which is from. And a by-product of the clinker-to-cement ratio over all cement types in EU27! Work: for pointing work: for pointing work proportion of cement mortar should be 1:1 to (. From flue gases of coal-fired power stations book cement Analysis Iea, please your. For cement standards, there is no worldwide, harmonised definition or standard for cement, 2013 ) chapter... Range: 1.0 – 1.5 clinker with higher Alumina modulus results in the cement and back-calculate production! Constituents varies clinker to cement conversion ratio the purposes of meaningful reporting, the terms “cementitious products” or are... Balance is the rotary kiln where the pyroprocessing stage occurs chapter Purchase book cement Iea... And clay to the point of liquefaction at about 1400°C-1500°C in the production of silicon or ferrosilicon.! Product concrete is a cement production value, which can be blended a. Being available than the clinker mass balance in a plant ( e.g characteristics... The most common of which are clinker to cement conversion ratio as hydraulic cements diagram on how to determine the clinker on.