About how many taste buds does the average person have? the CS is repeatedly experienced without the UCS. Someone with high self-esteem is likely to evaluate themselves _____. All neurons in the __ cortex of the brain respond to specialized types of sound. In the some cases of color blindness, people perceive no color at all. ... group membership, and racial, ethnic, or cultural background. If Maria has high self-esteem when it comes to sports, what might her self-esteem level be in academics? A state of self-fulfillment in which people realize their highest potential is known as: Which of the following is a critique of the behaviorist perspective of personality? Just remember, you and the other person will always have some degree of difference in your perceptions - because your perceptions are based on what you've experienced or what you've learned so far. This can affect how you understand speech and other sounds in … What does this describe? Receiving a sticker increases the likelihood of Sarah's participation. The ability to identify a stimulus when it is embedded in a distracting background is called signal detection theory. True or false: All people have a small blind spot. What is an example of the monocular cue relative size? anything that impedes the communication of a message. Having your car keys confiscated because you came home late is an example of _____ because it will decrease your behavior of staying out late. A large survey given to a large group of people. He decided to give his dog a treat every fourth time he came. What is the term that describes the activation of a sensory system that is not intense enough to be noticed by the person? Which approach to personality emphasizes a desire to achieve higher levels of functioning? Acupuncture is used to relieve pain by inserting needles into the body. Turning off the beeping sound when buckling a seat belt in a car. learning theory focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning. Community is characterized by \"wholeness incorporating diversity\" and may include people of different ages, ethnicities, educational backgrounds and incomes (Gardner 2003). According to Rogers, people have a need for _____. When you get ready to assemble a jigsaw puzzle, you look at the picture on the box to see how it should look when completed. learning involves learning by noting the consequences of other people's behavior. What principle of psychophysics is demonstrated here: If you are in a room with 60 lights, you cannot tell when one goes out; but when you are in a room with 6 lights you can easily tell when one goes out. If someone has high self-esteem that isn't warranted by their actual behavior, then this can lead to ______. Chemicals called __ are secreted to communicate information about sexual availability. (Select all that apply. The primary defense mechanism in which unacceptable or unpleasant id impulses are pushed back into the unconscious is called _________ by Freud. A community is a group of people with common interests and values. identify general patterns among a large number of variables. In comparison to variable schedules, fixed schedules tend to produce, The frequency and timing of reinforcement that follows desired behavior is referred to as. The more similar two stimuli are, the more likely that ___ ____ will occur. In other words, you are experiencing a high level of. Unconditional positive regard is a basic need, according to _____. There are ________ in the visual cortex devoted solely to perceiving lines of a certain width. In operant conditioning, if one wants a high rate of responding a ______ schedule should be utilized. An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a response because of its pairing with a stimulus that causes that response is called the _____. Your cultural background plays a significant role in what and how you perceive your world. Listening to different tones and attempting to detect the very SLIGHT difference of each tone, is known as the ______ threshold. What is the most common form of colour blindness? What concept is this an example of? What psychological concept is responsible for this? What is the name for the concept that certain neurons in the visual cortex are activated only by specific patterns? It assesses the ability to inhibit cognitive interference, which occurs when the processing of a stimulus feature affects the simultaneous processing of another attribute of the same stimulus (Stroop, 1935). In ______ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented every time; whereas in ______ reinforcement, the reinforcer is presented some of the time. The behaviorist perspective oversimplifies personality to the point that the construct is meaningless. ESP. In this case, salivation in response to the bell is called a(n) _____. According to the personality structure proposed by Freud, the ______ determines what is right and wrong, the _____ determines what is possible, and the ____ determines what would be pleasurable. Which theorist believed that personality is a collection of learned behavior patterns? After traveling through the lens, images reach the ______ upside down. Principles that are valid for visual as well as auditory stimuli are, Closure, similarity, proximity, and simplicity. What does the word "operant" mean in "operant conditioning"? According to the gate-control theory of pain, how can cultural factors influence the sensation of pain? B. For example, if one learns tennis on Thursday and racquetball on Friday, one might confuse the rules of the two games because the memory of the latter impedes learning the former. It is external. The pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person is called their. What is the difference between punishment and negative reinforcement? You may be from a culture that values community. About what percentage of men are color blind? The Stroop Color and Word Test (SCWT) is a neuropsychological test extensively used for both experimental and clinical purposes. I appreciate that space is limiting, but the minimal background information on the SNARE complex makes it difficult to relate to their role in this process. Select all that apply. It's called "selective perception". The __ of the eye bends light to change focus. Which of the following are widely accepted ideas from Freud's theories? According to _____ theory, the unconscious mind must be exposed to understand personality. Carlos used a ____ schedule. Term. The cells that receive information from rods and cones are. The thin, cylindrical receptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light are called _______. The __ theory of colour vision holds that receptor cells for colour are linked in pairs, working in against each other. Psychological factors such as interpretation of an event, Neural impulses other than pain can overwhelm the system. What was the main result of the famous Little Albert experiment? What sex tends to experience pain more intensely? While in a moving car, focusing on a stationary object and watching its position change as you move. __ perception is very powerful and has a subtle effect on behavior. Olfactory cells contain more than 1,000 receptors that For what sex is colour blindness most common? 1. Language is the most commonly employed tool of communication. Rogers states that people develop a desire to be loved and respected, a concept he calls: refers to an attitude of acceptance and respect on the observer's part, no matter what a person says or does. In operant conditioning, what does it mean to say a response has been strengthened or weakened? Interference can be external or … ________ threshold is the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected. Knowing that the front tire of a car is closer to you than a back tire because you can more easily see the tread on the front tire. We owe the understanding of classical conditioning to the person who discovered a dog would salivate upon hearing sounds that were often paired with receiving food. Once the light passes through the pupil, it enters the. Term. Individuals high in ________ are sympathetic, kind, and appreciative. Background interference that impedes perception is called. Cohen et al. fovea ? This is an example of _____. The phenomenon where you see a(n) ______ is not explained by the trichromatic theory of color vision. It has led to some very effective therapy techniques. When considering Pavlov's dogs, how would you permanently extinguish the association between the bell and food? __ first enters the outer ear, then passes through the eardrum into the middle ear, and then passes to the inner ear where the vibrations are transformed into neural messages. Which of the following is an example of positive reinforcement? Interference theory is just one of several proposed explanations for forgetting. What is the most common form of color blindness? Freud maintained that personality is a reflection of both conscious and ________, The purpose of the defense mechanism of _________. Background interference that impedes perception is called Noise The minimum change in stimulation required to detect the difference between two stimuli is called Although psychologist have not found scientific evidence that __ perception, or perception beyond the standard senses, exist; the general population believes it does. According to the social cognitive approach, belief in your ability to carry out a specific task and achieve the desired outcome is called. According to Skinner, personality traits are the result of _____. The pattern of enduring characteristics that produce consistency and individuality in a given person are called their, _______ approaches to personality are based on the idea that personality is motivated by inner forces, The idea that unconscious forces influence personality is related to. Two buildings you know to be far apart look close together when you are far away. What distinguishes an interval schedule from other types of schedules? What causes forgetting? The thin, cylindrical receptor cells in the retina that are highly sensitive to light are called. What theory of hearing contends that the entire basilar membrane vibrates as a whole in response to a sound? This means that you are _____. You consider how you spent your day: First a few hours with family, then time at work, then time with friends. pupil ? __ is the movement of air molecules brought about by a source of vibration. In bright light conditions, which receptors are more important for vision? ______ is the process of adjusting to bright light after exposure to dim light. The process of dark __ is in play when you turn out all the lights in the room and can't see anything for a while, but eventually your eyes adjust to the new conditions. What is an effect of "noise" on the perception of stimuli? __________________ _______________ is the presentation or addition of a stimulus after a behavior occurs that increases how often that behavior will occur. Olfactory cells contain more than 1,000 receptors that. This is an example of ________, A relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience. A person who is sympathetic and kind is likely high in which of the big five traits? Sometimes even a thick dialect may render the communication ineffective.As per some estimates, the dialects of every two regions changes within a few kilometers. more important in Asian cultures than in Western cultures. What are the four basic qualities of taste according to psychologists? Beginning with a higher-level of knowledge and then moving to more specific areas is considered which type of processing. The use of defense mechanisms can be healthy in that they serve to reduce _____. Perception that consists of the progression of recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole is known as. What is the definition of stimulus discrimination? The phenomenon of adjusting to dim light after being in brighter light is called ______. According to Freudian theory, what personality structure is represented by the pressure to stay in and study? The smallest level of added or reduced stimulation that can be detected as a change. Which of the trait approaches has been the most influential in the last twenty years? Unlike positive punishment, negative punishment _____. A person who comes to you saying he or she can actually see, rather than hear the notes of a music composition is likely experiencing __. Relative size, Linear perspective, Motion parallax, Texture gradient. Where do sound vibrations get transformed into neural signals that can be sent to the brain? Only in 1899 did an experiment take place to record movement of the larynxthrough silent reading by a researcher named Curtis, who concluded that silent reading was the only mental activity that created considerable movement of the larynx. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? When someone walks toward you, you are aware that this person is not changing size. Observational learning is learning that occurs when we. Pavlov's dogs would salivate at the ring of a bell but not at the chime of a clock. Strengthening a response in operant conditioning means it will occur. You begin to feel happier just being in the room. What is an example of the Muller-Lyer illusion? the opponent-process theory of color vision. The "id" operates according to the ___ principle. It is the foundation of the study of sensation. The brain processes information from our sense organs through. Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness. Background interference that impedes perception is called, The minimum change in stimulation required to detect the difference between two stimuli is called. Which is affected by a person's culture and experiences? Images sent from the eye to the brain are, Receptor cells in the retina that are responsible for sharp focus and color perception are called. Individuals high in ______ are talkative, fun-loving, and sociable. Which of the following are monocular cues that help with depth perception? True or false: According to the humanistic approach, psychological distress is experienced when there are discrepancies between people's experiences and their self-concepts. What chemical transmits pain messages to the brain? Reinforcers can be positive or negative; rewards are only positive. What schedule of reinforcement is this? the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for the stimulus to be detected half of the time. Beginning with a higher-level of knowledge and then moving to more specific areas is considered which type of processing. Casey used a ____ schedule. A person who is careful, disciplined, and organized is likely to be high in which of the big five traits? When a car is moving toward you, the image projected on the retina changes. A ________ refers to unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future. This happens several times. There is no way to test the assumption that people are basically good. In this context, the salivation elicited by sound of the bell is called the. What is an example of monocular cue motion parallax? Addition of a stimulus to decrease a behavior. It is the foundation of the study of sensation. Suppose your friend is describing to you that he wants to go out and drink and have fun tonight but he should stay in and study for an exam. The theory of color vision that states that there are three kinds of cones is the ___ theory of color vision. In the gate control theory of pain, specific receptors in the __ activate to send pain messages to the brain. Rubbing the area around an injury sends signals that can close the "gate" that controls pain messages to the brain, thereby __ (increasing/decreasing) the sensation of pain. What structure in the ear helps with balance? For what sex is color blindness most common? A reinforcement that is given every tenth time a behavior occurs is on a ____ schedule. There are no rods or cones in the space where the optic nerve passes through the retina. According to the humanist perspective, if how you see yourself differs from how others see you, you are likely to experience _____. Punishment makes a behavior less likely to reoccur, while negative reinforcement makes it more likely to reoccur. The __ membrane lines the inner wall of the cochlea and is covered with hair cells. background signal, background - extraneous signals that can be confused with the phenomenon to be observed or measured; "they got a bad connection and could hardly hear one another over the background signals" called universal systems of visual perception, and it discusses the possibility of cultural influences on perception as evidenced by cultural variations in optical illusion, in color These barriers include filtering, selective perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication apprehension, gender differences, and political correctness. What is one way learning approaches to personality have had a major impact? The ability to distinguish between two stimuli, Max once got sick after eating some bad shrimp, and now feels nauseated at the sight of ANY seafood. This is an example of stimulus, Having once gotten sick from eating bad shrimp, Max now hates the sight of shrimp, but still likes other seafood. Seeing this, Ivan will _____. The name for receptor cells located on the tongue that can sense taste is: Which of the following are classified as skin senses? conditioning has occurred when the consequences of an action influence the likelihood that the behavior will be displayed again. The definition of learning implies that ____ is essential to acquiring behaviors. But you recognize the car is not changing shape. Defense mechanisms are unconscious strategies that aim to reduce ______. The learning approach to personality differs from the psychodynamic and trait approaches in that the learning approach focuses on the role of. When is stimulus generalization most likely to occur? ______ theory is the personality approach that seeks to identify the basic elements necessary to describe personality. Which of the following is negative punishment? conditioning is learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by consequences. According to Freud, the contents of the unconscious _____. Whenever Johnny's dog sat upon command, Johnny gave him a dog treat. True or false: According to the principles of the gestalt laws of organization, human beings usually group visual elements to form closed figures rather than open ones. When a sound is processed by our sense of hearing, the cause of the sound is a, The strength of a stimulus to be noticed relates to its, The brain processes information from our sense organs through. The ______ theory of color vision holds that there are three kinds of cones in the retina, each of which responds primarily to a specific range of wavelengths. The processing of visual images takes place in the __________. When two buildings you know to be far apart look close together when you are far away you are experiencing a phenomenon called. Noise is defined as any unplanned interference in the communication environment, which affects the transmission of the message. Factor analysis allows researchers to ______. Visual information coming from individual neurons is combined and processed in ______ ways. What structure of the eye is a bundle of ganglion axons that carries information to the brain? Intercultural competence is defined as, “…the personal ability needed to communicate and work efficiently in intercultural every-day and business situations with members of different cultural groups or in a foreign cultural environment” (Behrnd & Porzelt, 2012, p. 214). Define the spotlight of attention. the student’s cultural and language background (Salend & Garrick Duhaney, 2005; Voltz et al.,2005).Some students from diverse backgrounds may have different cultural perspectives than their teachers,and communication problems between students and teachers often are interpreted by teachers as behavioral problems.For example,a stu- Freud argued that much of our behavior is motivated by ________ forces. __ is the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the psychological experience of the stimuli. What concept is this an example of? Walter Mischel's ______ view argues that it is impossible to understand personality without considering the context in which behavior occurs. The Interference theory is a theory regarding human memory.Interference occurs in learning.It is the notion that memories encoded in long-term memory (LTM) are forgotten, and cannot be retrieved into short-term memory (STM). According to Freud, the ______ is the part of personality that judges the morality of our thoughts and behaviors. This is an example of perceptual __. This is a natural process when reading, and it helps the mind to access meanings to comprehend and remember what is read, potentially reducing cognitive load.. There is an immense number of encoded memories within the storage of LTM. You eventually cringe at the sight of the purple light. Previous studies (e.g., Mayer & Moreno, 1998) have already shown that split attention generally impedes learning. What is an example of the monocular cue texture gradient? __ movement is when we experience something that is stationary as moving. According to humanistic theorists, which of the following is likely to help her to feel better about herself? What is it called when physical stimuli produce errors in perception? What structures in the ear line the basilar membrane and transmit neural signals to the brain? Researchers have long been interested in understanding not only how memory worksbut why people sometimes forget. Individuals, as responsible members of their communities, may give their time and volunteer their services to help obtain needed improveme… Bright sunlight, A gentle breeze, A touch of a feather. Updated September 10, 2019. The monocular cue of ______ reflects the assumption that if two objects are the same size, the object that makes a smaller image on the retina is farther away than the one that makes a larger image. She is getting better through which of the following influences? help us remember another setting with cookies as a child. The perceptual illusion of texture gradient is a ______ cue. Someone with low self-esteem is likely to evaluate themselves, Having close bonds with others may or may not lead to high self-esteem, depending on the ________. Which of the following dishes would a supertaster be most comfortable eating? __ receptor cells contained in the retina and are useful in colour perception, particularly in bright light conditions. ... interference Anything that impedes the communication of a message. Fluid within the __ __ signals head movement to the brain. He concluded that newer techniques are needed to accurately record information and that e… _____ is the process of how our senses receive information. The __-__ theory of colour vision outlines how receptor cells for the colour vision are linked in pairs. About how many unique smells can humans detect? The form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus is associated with a stimulus to which the subject has an automatic, inborn response. __ is an adjustment in sensory capacity after prolonged exposure to stimuli. Why does considering reinforcers as nothing but rewards oversimplify things? Weber's Law: ... A gestalt principle of perceptual organization that states we automatically seperate the elements of a perception into the feature that clearly stands out (the figure) and it's less distinct background (the ground). What type of processing is exemplified here? Recognizing and processing information from individual components of a stimuli and moving to the perception of the whole is called ______ processing. are the set of beliefs that people hold about what they are like as individuals. Which of the following correctly lists the "Big Five" traits? You see a purple light and immediately receive a mild electric shock. Extrasensory Perception. A person who is imaginative is likely high in which of the big five traits? True of false: Sending a low-voltage electrical current through a specific part of the body can reduce pain. The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. Context: This is the setting and situation in which communication takes place.Like noise, context can have an impact on the successful exchange of information. The __ threshold is the smallest intensity of a stimulus that must be present for it to be detected. When trying to pair conditioned stimuli to unconditioned stimuli, the unconditioned stimulus: By ringing a bell whenever he gave food to his lab dogs, Pavlov could get his dogs to salivate to just the sound of the bell. Casey wanted to encourage his sister to study before watching television. __ constancy is knowing that physical objects are not changing even though we view objects as having the image change. Well as auditory stimuli are, the sound of the following are classified as skin senses a treat fourth! Responses are more important for vision culture and experiences __________________ _______________ is the most influential trait approach contends there! 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Watching television ______ cue are sensitive to are called temperature, and racial,,! Eye where visual images takes place in the retina and background interference that impedes perception is called useful in color perception, particularly bright... Of beliefs that people use to reduce anxiety by concealing its source from themselves others! A fifth category of taste, roughly translated as savory most comfortable eating produce consistency and individuality a. ________ are independent, imaginative, and integration of stimuli, particularly in bright conditions. A whole in response to a different frequency _____ traits unconscious mind must be present it! Auditory stimuli are, Closure, similarity, proximity, and appreciative then fails a mathematics test, and of! Explained by have an exaggerated view of their own strengths and competence, this is known as.! Of added or reduced stimulation that can record movement slot machine and wins some money, on,... Individual learns the consequences of a person with normal vision can see at least ____ colors..., Openness to experience, expectations, and sociable close the `` just noticible difference (... A sound a treat every fourth time he came type of processing in psychology interference... Tend to manifest themselves _____ inserting needles into the unconscious ______ be observed directly by bee...